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If you thought that defining and playing around with a camera and lights were activities reserved for complex games, think again. XNA makes it simple to deal with a camera, lights, and special effects, but you do need to know the basics about these to create even a simple 3D game. After all, without a camera and lights, how can you see what was constructed in your 3D scene This section will provide a high-level view of these features. XNA s BasicEffect class fulfills all your needs for not only basic games, but also for some complex games. This class offers properties and methods that let you define the final details to render your 3D scene. The following are some of the most important properties of this class: View: The view matrix, which defines the camera position and direction. Usually created using Matrix.CreateLookAt. Projection: The projection matrix that s used to map the 3D scene coordinates to screen coordinates. Usually created through Matrix.CreatePerspective, Matrix.CreateOrthographic, or a similar method. World: The world matrix, which is used to apply transformations to all objects in the 3D scene. LightingEnabled: If False, the scene is rendered using a base light that illuminates all sides of all objects equally. If True, the light properties of BasicEffect will be used to light the scene. AmbientLightColor: Defines the color of the ambient light, which illuminates all sides of all objects equally. It s used only when rendering if LightingEnabled is set to True.

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Unit testing requires you to test the components in isolation. The reverse testing the behavior of the components when connected is integration testing. Integration testing ensures that the various component APIs can exchange data. Various errors can be introduced if these methods are not tested together. For example, misassumptions about the purpose of a method are sometimes apparent only when a class provides real data, rather than dummy data, to the other components. Integration testing does not require any technologies specific to Spring, and there are no special techniques required. Integration testing is about verifying the behavior of the application as a whole so the internal details should not be relevant. When you need to perform partial integration tests (for example, testing from the web application layer down to a dummy database layer), the techniques shown already are applicable.

DirectionalLight0, DirectionalLight1, and DirectionalLight2: Define up to three directional lights used by the effect when rendering Each directional light is defined by its specular color (color of the light that will have a perfect, mirror-like reflection), its diffuse color (color of the light that will be reflected diffusely), and the light direction These properties are used only if LightingEnabled is set to True FogColor, FogStart, and FogEnd: Let you define fog for the scene, so objects in the fog range appear to be seen through a dense smoke You can specify the fog color, along with the distance in which the fog begins and ends Along with these properties, one important method of BasicEffect is EnableDefaultLighting, which turns on a single, white directional light without requiring any extra light configuration.

There are various tools to allow you to create tests of a web application. Two that I recommend are HttpUnit ( and Selenium ( selenium/). These tools approach the problem of automating the testing of a GUI designed for manual operation in two different ways. Both HttpUnit and Selenium tests can be integrated into Maven builds. HttpUnit allows your unit test to connect directly to a web application without using a browser. You use the HttpUnit libraries to create a JUnit test case that specifies the inputs to provide and the outputs expected from each page of the application. These tests provide an excellent test to confirm that the back-end components correctly interpret the incoming web requests, but they are less effective in testing that the correct content is displayed to the user. Although there is some support for it, debugging and testing JavaScript-based issues is particularly difficult when using HttpUnit. Selenium allows you to create a test of the application by creating JavaScript-based scripts to drive the browser directly. The approach is considerably more complicated than the HttpUnit technique, but you have the advantage of using the same browser that your end users will be using. Any quirks in the rendering engine or script interpretation that

The following code fragment presents a blueprint for what your program needs to do to render the scene properly, assuming that effect is a BasicEffect object that was properly initialized: effectBegin(); foreach(EffectPass CurrentPass in effectCurrentTechniquePasses) { CurrentPassBegin(); // Include here the code for drawing the scene using this effect CurrentPassEnd(); } effectEnd(); In this code, you tell the effect to Begin its processing, then loop through a collection of all EffectPass objects of the current technique used (there s also a collection of effect techniques) You also need to start and end each of the passes of the technique Finally, you need to tell the effect to End the processing At first glance, the previous code might seem a bit too much for a simple rendering effect.

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